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2006. “Validation of a 20-year forecast of US childhood lead poisoning: Updated prospects for 2010.” Environmental Research 102

by David E. Jacobs, Rick Nevin

"... We forecast childhood lead poisoning and residential lead paint hazard prevalence for 1990–2010, based on a previously unvalidated model that combines national blood lead data with three different housing data sets. The housing data sets, which describe trends in housing demolition, rehabilitation, ..."

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We forecast childhood lead poisoning and residential lead paint hazard prevalence for 1990–2010, based on a previously unvalidated model that combines national blood lead data with three different housing data sets. The housing data sets, which describe trends in housing demolition, rehabilitation, window replacement, and lead paint, are the American Housing Survey, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, and the National Lead Paint Survey. Blood lead data are principally from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. New data now make it possible to validate the midpoint of the forecast time period. For the year 2000, the model predicted 23.3 million pre-1960 housing units with lead paint hazards, compared to an empirical HUD estimate of 20.6 million units. Further, the model predicted 498,000 children with elevated blood lead levels (EBL) in 2000, compared to a CDC empirical estimate of 434,000. The model predictions were well within 95 % confidence intervals of empirical estimates for both residential lead paint hazard and blood lead outcome measures. The model shows that window replacement explains a large part of the dramatic reduction in lead poisoning that occurred from 1990 to 2000. Here, the construction of the model is described and updated through 2010 using new data. Further declines in childhood lead poisoning are achievable, but the goal of eliminating children’s blood lead levelsX10mg/dL by 2010 is unlikely to be achieved without additional action. A window replacement policy will yield multiple benefits of lead poisoning prevention, increased home energy efficiency, decreased power plant emissions, improved housing affordability, and other previously unrecognized benefits. Finally, combining housing and health data could be applied to forecasting other housing-related diseases and injuries.

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...m lead-contaminated dust that settles on horizontal surfaces, such as floors and window sills, and is then ingested via normal hand-to-mouth contact (Bornschein et al., 1987; Duggan and Inskip, 1985; =-=Lanphear et al., 1995-=-, 1998). Before leaded gasoline was banned, children were also exposed to dust lead from settling gasoline emissions. Older homes with interior lead paint are especially likely to have lead dust hazar...

Articles Comparison of Techniques to Reduce Residential Lead Dust on Carpet and Upholstery: The New Jersey Assessment of Cleaning Techniques Trial

by Lih-ming Yiin, George G. Rhoads, David Q. Rich, Junfeng Zhang, Zhipeng Bai, John L. Adgate, Peter J. Ashley, Paul J. Lioy

"... High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum cleaners are recommended by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development for cleaning lead-contaminated house dust. We performed a randomized field study to determine whether a conventional (non-HEPA) vacuum cleaner could achieve cleanin ..."

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High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum cleaners are recommended by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development for cleaning lead-contaminated house dust. We performed a randomized field study to determine whether a conventional (non-HEPA) vacuum cleaner could achieve cleaning results comparable with those of a HEPA vacuum cleaner. We compared the lead loading reductions of these two vacuum cleaners in a total of 127 New Jersey homes of lead-exposed children. We used wet towelettes and a vacuum sampler to collect lead dust from carpets and upholstery before and after vacuum cleaning. The vacuum sampling data showed that the HEPA and non-HEPA vacuum cleaners resulted in 54.7 % (p = 0.006) and 36.4 % (p = 0.020) reductions in lead loading, respectively, when used on soiled carpets, although the overall difference in lead loading reduction between the two vacuum cleaners was not statistically significant (p = 0.293). The wipe sampling data did not show any significant lead loading reduction for either of the vacuum cleaners, suggesting that both vacuum cleaners fail to clean the surfaces of carpet effectively, considering that wipe sampling media simulate surface contact. On upholstery, the wipe sampling data showed a significant reduction in lead loading for the non-HEPA vacuum cleaner (22.2%, p = 0.047). Even with the significant reduction, the postcleaning lead loadings on

Skin Lead Contamination of Family Members of Boat-caulkers in Southern Thailand

by Orrapan Untimanon, Alan Geater, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong, Wiyada Saetia, Sutida Utapan , 2009

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